User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction (UMUAI) provides an interdisciplinary forum for the dissemination of new research results on interactive computer systems that can be adapted or adapt themselves to their current users, and on the role of user models in the adaptation process.

UMUAI has been published since 1991 by Kluwer Academic Publishers (now merged with Springer Verlag).

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Latest Results for User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction

19 January 2020

The latest content available from Springer
  • Multistakeholder recommendation: Survey and research directions


    Recommender systems provide personalized information access to users of Internet services from social networks to e-commerce to media and entertainment. As is appropriate for research in a field with a focus on personalization, academic studies of recommender systems have largely concentrated on optimizing for user experience when designing, implementing and evaluating their algorithms and systems. However, this concentration on the user has meant that the field has lacked a systematic exploration of other aspects of recommender system outcomes. A user-centric approach limits the ability to incorporate system objectives, such as fairness, balance, and profitability, and obscures concerns that might come from other stakeholders, such as the providers or sellers of items being recommended. Multistakeholder recommendation has emerged as a unifying framework for describing and understanding recommendation settings where the end user is not the sole focus. This article outlines the multistakeholder perspective on recommendation, highlighting example research areas and discussing important issues, open questions, and prospective research directions.

  • Creating user stereotypes for persona development from qualitative data through semi-automatic subspace clustering


    Personas are models of users that incorporate motivations, wishes, and objectives; These models are employed in user-centred design to help design better user experiences and have recently been employed in adaptive systems to help tailor the personalized user experience. Designing with personas involves the production of descriptions of fictitious users, which are often based on data from real users. The majority of data-driven persona development performed today is based on qualitative data from a limited set of interviewees and transformed into personas using labour-intensive manual techniques. In this study, we propose a method that employs the modelling of user stereotypes to automate part of the persona creation process and addresses the drawbacks of the existing semi-automated methods for persona development. The description of the method is accompanied by an empirical comparison with a manual technique and a semi-automated alternative (multiple correspondence analysis). The results of the comparison show that manual techniques differ between human persona designers leading to different results. The proposed algorithm provides similar results based on parameter input, but was more rigorous and will find optimal clusters, while lowering the labour associated with finding the clusters in the dataset. The output of the method also represents the largest variances in the dataset identified by the multiple correspondence analysis.

  • Impact of inquiry interventions on students in e-learning and classroom environments using affective computing framework


    Effective teaching strategies improve the students’ learning rate within academic learning time. Inquiry-based instruction is one of the effective teaching strategies used in the classrooms. But these teaching strategies are not adapted in other learning environments like intelligent tutoring systems, including auto tutors. In this paper, we propose an automatic inquiry-based instruction teaching strategy, i.e., inquiry intervention using students’ affective states. The proposed model contains two modules: the first module consists of the proposed framework for predicting the unobtrusive multi-modal students’ affective states (teacher-centric attentive and in-attentive states) using the facial expressions, hand gestures and body postures. The second module consists of the proposed automated inquiry-based instruction teaching strategy to compare the learning outcomes with and without inquiry intervention using affective state transitions for both an individual and a group of students. The proposed system is tested on four different learning environments, namely: e-learning, flipped classroom, classroom and webinar environments. Unobtrusive recognition of students’ affective states is performed using deep learning architectures. After student-independent tenfold cross-validation, we obtained the students’ affective state classification accuracy of 77% and object localization accuracy of 81% using students’ faces, hand gestures and body postures. The overall experimental results demonstrate that there is a positive correlation with \(r=0.74\) between students’ affective states and their performance. Proposed inquiry intervention improved the students’ performance as there is a decrease of 65%, 43%, 43%, and 53% in overall in-attentive affective state instances using the inquiry interventions in e-learning, flipped classroom, classroom and webinar environments, respectively.

  • Going deeper: Automatic short-answer grading by combining student and question models


    As various educational technologies have rapidly become more powerful and more prevalent, especially from the 2010s onward, the demand of automated grading natural language responses has become a major area of research. In this work, we leverage the classic student and domain/question models that are widely used in the field of intelligent tutoring systems to the task of automatic short-answer grading (ASAG). ASAG is the process of applying natural language processing techniques to assess student-authored short answers, and conventional ASAG systems often mainly focus upon student answers, referred as answer-based. In recent years, various deep learning models have gained great popularity in a wide range of domains. While classic machine learning methods have been widely employed to ASAG, as far as we know, deep learning models have not been applied to it probably because the lexical features from short answers provide limited information. In this work, we explore the effectiveness of a deep learning model, deep belief networks (DBN), to the task of ASAG. Overall, our results on a real-world corpus demonstrate that 1) leveraging student and question models to the conventional answer-based approach can greatly enhance the performance of ASAG, and 2) deep learning models such as DBN can be productively applied to the task of ASAG.

  • An investigation on the user interaction modes of conversational recommender systems for the music domain


    Conversational Recommender Systems (CoRSs) implement a paradigm that allows users to interact in natural language with the system for defining their preferences and discovering items that best fit their needs. CoRSs can be straightforwardly implemented as chatbots that, nowadays, are becoming more and more popular for several applications, such as customer care, health care, and medical diagnoses. Chatbots implement an interaction based on natural language, buttons, or both. The implementation of a chatbot is a challenging task since it requires knowledge about natural language processing and human–computer interaction. A CoRS might be particularly useful in the music domain since music is generally enjoyed in contexts when a standard interface cannot be exploited (driving, doing homeworks, running). However, there is no work in the literature that analytically compares different interaction modes for a conversational music recommender system. In this paper, we focus on the design and implementation of a CoRS for the music domain. Our CoRS consists of different components. The system implements content-based recommendation, critiquing and adaptive strategies, as well as explanation facilities. The main innovative contribution is that the user can interact through different interaction modes: natural language, buttons, and mixed. Due to the lack of available datasets for testing CoRSs, we carried out an in vivo experimental evaluation with the goal of investigating the impact of the different interaction modes on the recommendation accuracy and on the cost of interaction for the final user. The experiment involved 110 people, and 54 completed the whole process. The analysis of the results shows that the best interaction mode is based on a mixed strategy that combines buttons and natural language. In addition, the results allow to clearly understand which are the steps in the dialog that are particularly strenuous for the user.