User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction (UMUAI) provides an interdisciplinary forum for the dissemination of new research results on interactive computer systems that can be adapted or adapt themselves to their current users, and on the role of user models in the adaptation process.

UMUAI has been published since 1991 by Kluwer Academic Publishers (now merged with Springer Verlag).

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Latest Results for User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction

24 May 2019

The latest content available from Springer
  • Effects of recommendations on the playlist creation behavior of users


    The digitization of music, the emergence of online streaming platforms and mobile apps have dramatically changed the ways we consume music. Today, much of the music that we listen to is organized in some form of a playlist, and many users of modern music platforms create playlists for themselves or to share them with others. The manual creation of such playlists can however be demanding, in particular due to the huge amount of possible tracks that are available online. To help users in this task, music platforms like Spotify provide users with interactive tools for playlist creation. These tools usually recommend additional songs to include given a playlist title or some initial tracks. Interestingly, little is known so far about the effects of providing such a recommendation functionality. We therefore conducted a user study involving 270 subjects, where one half of the participants—the treatment group—were provided with automated recommendations when performing a playlist construction task. We then analyzed to what extent such recommendations are adopted by users and how they influence their choices. Our results, among other aspects, show that about two thirds of the treatment group made active use of the recommendations. Further analyses provide additional insights about the underlying reasons why users selected certain recommendations. Finally, our study also reveals that the mere presence of the recommendations impacts the choices of the participants, even in cases when none of the recommendations was actually chosen.

  • Exploring user behavioral data for adaptive cybersecurity


    This paper describes an exploratory investigation into the feasibility of predictive analytics of user behavioral data as a possible aid in developing effective user models for adaptive cybersecurity. Partial least squares structural equation modeling is applied to the domain of cybersecurity by collecting data on users’ attitude towards digital security, and analyzing how that influences their adoption and usage of technological security controls. Bayesian-network modeling is then applied to integrate the behavioral variables with simulated sensory data and/or logs from a web browsing session and other empirical data gathered to support personalized adaptive cybersecurity decision-making. Results from the empirical study show that predictive analytics is feasible in the context of behavioral cybersecurity, and can aid in the generation of useful heuristics for the design and development of adaptive cybersecurity mechanisms. Predictive analytics can also aid in encoding digital security behavioral knowledge that can support the adaptation and/or automation of operations in the domain of cybersecurity. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the techniques applied to extract input data for the Bayesian-based models for personalized adaptive cybersecurity assistance.

  • Detecting students-at-risk in computer programming classes with learning analytics from students’ digital footprints


    Different sources of data about students, ranging from static demographics to dynamic behavior logs, can be harnessed from a variety sources at Higher Education Institutions. Combining these assembles a rich digital footprint for students, which can enable institutions to better understand student behaviour and to better prepare for guiding students towards reaching their academic potential. This paper presents a new research methodology to automatically detect students “at-risk” of failing an assignment in computer programming modules (courses) and to simultaneously support adaptive feedback. By leveraging historical student data, we built predictive models using students’ offline (static) information including student characteristics and demographics, and online (dynamic) resources using programming and behaviour activity logs. Predictions are generated weekly during semester. Overall, the predictive and personalised feedback helped to reduce the gap between the lower and higher-performing students. Furthermore, students praised the prediction and the personalised feedback, conveying strong recommendations for future students to use the system. We also found that students who followed their personalised guidance and recommendations performed better in examinations.

  • Data-informed design parameters for adaptive collaborative scripting in across-spaces learning situations


    This study presents how predictive analytics can be used to inform the formulation of adaptive collaborative learning groups in the context of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning considering across-spaces learning situations. During the study we have collected data from different learning spaces which depicted both individual and collaborative learning activity engagement of students in two different learning contexts (namely the classroom learning and distance learning context) and attempted to predict individual student’s future collaborative learning activity participation in a pyramid-based collaborative learning activity using supervised machine learning techniques. We conducted experimental case studies in the classroom and in distance learning settings, in which real-time predictions of student’s future collaborative learning activity participation were used to formulate adaptive collaborative learner groups. Findings of the case studies showed that the data collected from across-spaces learning scenarios is informative when predicting future collaborative learning activity participation of students hence facilitating the formulation of adaptive collaborative group configurations that adapt to the activity participation differences of students in real-time. Limitations of the proposed approach and future research direction are illustrated.

  • Subprofile-aware diversification of recommendations


    A user of a recommender system is more likely to be satisfied by one or more of the recommendations if each individual recommendation is relevant to her but additionally if the set of recommendations is diverse. The most common approach to recommendation diversification uses re-ranking: the recommender system scores a set of candidate items for relevance to the user; it then re-ranks the candidates so that the subset that it will recommend achieves a balance between relevance and diversity. Ordinarily, we expect a trade-off between relevance and diversity: the diversity of the set of recommendations increases by including items that have lower relevance scores but which are different from the items already in the set. In early work, the diversity of a set of recommendations was given by the average of their distances from one another, according to some semantic distance metric defined on item features such as movie genres. More recent intent-aware diversification methods formulate diversity in terms of coverage and relevance of aspects. The aspects are most commonly defined in terms of item features. By trying to ensure that the aspects of a set of recommended items cover the aspects of the items in the user’s profile, the level of diversity is more personalized. In offline experiments on pre-collected datasets, intent-aware diversification using item features as aspects sometimes defies the relevance/diversity trade-off: there are configurations in which the recommendations exhibits increases in both relevance and diversity. In this paper, we present a new form of intent-aware diversification, which we call SPAD (Subprofile-Aware Diversification), and a variant called RSPAD (Relevance-based SPAD). In SPAD, the aspects are not item features; they are subprofiles of the user’s profile. We present and compare a number of different ways to extract subprofiles from a user’s profile. None of them is defined in terms of item features. Therefore, SPAD is useful even in domains where item features are not available or are of low quality. On three pre-collected datasets from three different domains (movies, music artists and books), we compare SPAD and RSPAD to intent-aware methods in which aspects are item features. We find on these datasets that SPAD and RSPAD suffer even less from the relevance/diversity trade-off: across all three datasets, they increase both relevance and diversity for even more configurations than other approaches to diversification. Moreover, we find that SPAD and RSPAD are the most accurate systems across all three datasets.